Hello friends, today in this post we will talk about what is hybridization. Friends will know about it step by step, so let’s start without wasting time.
What is hybridization?
When two or more atomic orbitals of different energies of the outermost orbital of an atom mix together to form two or more new orbitals of the same energy, then this process is called hybridization of atomic orbitals and the new orbitals are called hybrid orbitals.
It is said that the hybridization of n orbitals of an atom forms n hybridizations. Alpha bonds are formed from hybridization orbitals.
For example, the basic electronic configuration of carbon is as follows
6C = 1s2, 2s2 2px¹ 2py¹ 2pz0 (ground state)
It has only two valence electrons, while there should be four valence electrons because the valency of carbon is four. It is believed that one of the 2s electrons gets excited and moves to the pz orbital, so the electronic configuration is as follows –
6C = 1s2, 2s2 2px¹ 2py¹ 2pz1 (excited state)
These four valencies are not equal because the energies of the s and p orbitals are different, due to which these four electron orbitals mix to form four new orbitals, which are all equal. These four orbitals are directed towards the four corners of the tetrahedron The carbon atom is located at the center and the angle between any two orbitals is 109 degrees 28′.
Hybridization features –
Hybridization has the following characteristics.
- Hybridization is always of the orbitals of the outermost shell of the atom. Hybridization has nothing to do with electrons.
- Hybridized orbitals have a definite geometrical structure.
- Half-filled orbitals can participate in hybridization, but sometimes fully-filled orbitals also take part along with incomplete orbitals.
- The atomic orbitals formed by hybridization have the same energy
- When a hybridized orbital overlaps to form a covalent bond, the bond is always a sigma bond.
- The more hybridized orbitals are hybridized by mixing the atomic orbitals, the more hybridized orbitals are formed.
- The directional property is more in the hybridized orbitals, so they form stronger bonds.
- It is not necessary that all the incomplete orbitals of the outermost orbital participate in the hybridization, but some of these orbitals can also participate in the hybridization, so the remaining orbitals are called unhybridized orbitals, which are p or d orbitals and these lateral overlaps always form π-bonds by
So far we have learned about hybridization and the characteristics of hybridization, and now we also know about the types of hybridization.
How many types of hybridization?
Hybridization type –
Following are some of the main forms of hybridization.
sp hybridization –
When an s orbital and a p orbital combine to form two new orbitals of the same energy, then this process is called sp-hybridization and the orbitals of the same energy formed from this type of hybridization are called sp-hybrid orbitals.
This type of hybridization is CO2, C2H2, etc. The shape of these molecules is linear. These hybrid orbitals make an angle of 180 degrees with each other.
Example – In the molecule of acetylene (C2H2) both carbon atoms are sp-hybridized, due to which the structure of C2H2 is linear. In this molecule, both carbon atoms have sp-hybridized orbitals (which bind to each other) and two unhybridized p orbitals.
In these, one sp-hybridized orbital of each carbon overlaps on its axes with the s-orbital of hydrogen to form a sigma bond in the form of C – H, while one sp-hybridized orbital overlaps on its axes with the C – C. The middle sigma bond is formed.
The remaining unhybridized p-orbitals of both atoms overlap laterally to form pi bonds as follows. In this, the H – C – C bond is 180 degrees.
Similarly HgCl2, CO2, etc. molecules are formed by sp-hybridization.
When one s orbital and two p orbitals combine to form three new orbitals of equal energy, then this process is called sp2 hybridization and the orbitals of the same energy formed from this type of hybridization are called sp2 hybrid orbitals. This type of hybridization in C2H4, Found in C6H6, etc. The shape of this type of hybrid orbital is triangular.
In the molecule of ethylene (C6H4) both the carbon atoms are sp2 hybridized, due to which the structure of C2H4 is triangular. In this molecule, three sp2 hybridized and one p unhybridized orbital in both the carbon atoms are formed by overlapping of their axes by the s-orbitals of two hydrogen atoms. C – H bond is formed in the form of a sigma bond
One sp2-hybridized orbital of each overlaps on its axes to form a C-C bond in the form of a sigma bond. The remaining p-unhybridized orbital of both atoms overlaps laterally to form a pi bond as above. In this, the H – C – C bond is about 120 degrees.
Apart from this, molecules like SO2, BCl3, SO3, etc. are also formed by sp2 hybridization.
sp3 – hybridization –
When one s orbital and three p orbitals combine to form four new orbitals of equal energy, then this process is called sp3-hybridization and the orbitals of the same energy formed from this type of hybridization are called sp3 hybrid orbitals. This type of hybridization CH4, CCl4, etc. are found in molecules. The shape of these molecules is tetrahedral.
The present carbon atom in the molecule of methane (CH4) is sp3 hybridized due to which the structure of the CH4 molecule is tetrahedral.
The carbon atoms present in this molecule have four sp2 hybridized orbitals which are linked to each other by tetrahedra. These four s orbitals of the four hydrogen atoms overlap on their axes to form four C – H bonds in the form of sigma bonds. – H angle is about 109 degrees 28′
Apart from this, SO42- ion, PO43- ion, SiCl4, etc. are formed by sp3 hybridization.
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Also, read –
Periodic Table, Mendeleev’s, Modern, Features, Examples?
Oxidation number rules, reduction, difference, example, method?