What is AIDS & HIV? Causes, Symptoms, Treatment & Control

Friends, would you like to know what AIDS is? If yes, then this article is specifically for you because, in this article, we will learn about its causes, symptoms, discovery, treatment, and control. So let’s start without wasting time.

What is AIDS?

AIDS is a condition in which symptoms of many diseases occur in the body, and such a condition in which symptoms of various types of diseases occur in the body is called a syndrome.

What is the full form of AIDS?

AIDS- Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

How does AIDS occur OR which virus causes AIDS?

The HIV causes it.

What is the full form of HIV?

HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus

When is World AIDS Day celebrated?

World AIDS Day is celebrated on December 1st.

When was AIDS discovered?

AIDS was first discovered in 1981 in the United States.

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Who discovered AIDS/HIV?

In 1983, scientist Montagier discovered that the HIV causes AIDS. Or we can say that he discovered HIV in 1983. The first case in India was seen in 1986 in Tamil Nadu.

What kind of virus is HIV?

It is a retrovirus. Retrovirus is a virus of a new generation and contains genetic material RNA, but when this virus attacks a cell, its genetic material changes into DNA. Such viruses are called retroviruses. The RNA-to-DNA conversion process is called reverse transcription, and it involves the enzyme reverse transcriptase.

What is HIV Virus, what is AIDS
What is HIV Virus

How does HIV infection occur/How does AIDS spread?

  1. Through sexual contact with an infected person,
  2. By receiving a blood transfusion,
  3. Through sharing contaminated needles,
  4. It can also be transmitted from an infected mother to her baby through the placenta.

AIDS does not spread just by touching or through body contact. However, if the fluid (blood) of an infected person comes into contact with our fluid, we can get AIDS.

How long does it take for AIDS symptoms to appear?

After infection, AIDS symptoms can appear after several months or even years (5-10 years).

Structure of the HIV

This is a retrovirus, as I have mentioned earlier. In this virus, two single-stranded RNA strands are present. When it infects a cell, it converts RNA into DNA, and for this conversion, an enzyme called reverse transcriptase is required. There are two reverse transcriptase enzymes in it. It has a protein coating called capsid. Besides this, there is another coating called the envelope. Not all viruses have an envelope. Mainly, this is found in retroviruses.

What is HIV Virus Structure
What is the HIV Virus Structure

How does the HIV infect?

When HIV comes into contact with a host or cell, it releases its nucleic acid, i.e., RNA, inside and uses the reverse transcriptase enzyme to perform RNA reverse transcription to make DNA. This DNA enters the cell’s nucleus and destroys the existing DNA there, taking control of the cell and starting its replication process, producing many viruses.

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When many viruses fill the cell, it bursts, and all the viruses come out. (This virus first attacks macrophages.) After coming out, these viruses attack T-helper lymphocyte cells and slowly start destroying them. Due to the destruction of T helper cells, plasma B cells are not stimulated to produce antibodies, So plasma B cells cannot produce antibodies.

Due to the absence of antibodies, the acquired immune system of the body becomes very weak allowing many pathogens such as bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, viruses, toxoplasma, etc., to enter the body and cause many diseases. Such a condition is called a syndrome.

Is there a cure for AIDS?

No, AIDS has not been completely cured yet. However, it is treated to reduce the symptoms for some time. Some medicines are given, such as Zidovudine and didanosine.

How is AIDS diagnosed?

An ELISA test diagnoses AIDS. ELISA stands for Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. If a person’s ELISA report is positive, then another Western blotting test is done for confirmation.

3 ways to prevent AIDS

To prevent AIDS, people need to be aware of unsafe sexual practices and avoid sharing needles, pregnant women should undergo HIV testing, blood should be tested thoroughly before transfusion to another person, and a new injection Nidil should be used, which can prevent the disease AIDS.

AIDS Symptoms

When a person is infected with HIV, initially they show symptoms similar to flu or other viral diseases. Such as – fever, headache, muscle pain, night sweats, sore throat, throat irritation, mouth ulcers, diarrhea, rapid weight loss, etc.

Many people get infected with HIV but do not show any symptoms for many days.

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How long does it take to develop AIDS from HIV?

No one can give a permanent answer to how long it takes for AIDS to develop from HIV because some people show symptoms within a few weeks, some take months, and some take years. So, no one can accurately say the time.

Scientists claim AIDS is not a disease.

Yes, AIDS is not a disease; it is a condition that leads to the onset of symptoms of many types of diseases in the body because, in AIDS, the acquired immune system of the person becomes very weak, allowing external pathogens to easily cause diseases in the body.

Where was the first AIDS patient found in India?

The first AIDS patient in India was found in the red-light district of Tamil Nadu.

Why is AIDS Day celebrated?

World AIDS Day is celebrated to raise awareness about HIV infection or AIDS because the more people are aware of it, the less the infection will spread.


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