Hello friends, In Today’s article, we will read about the Kingdom fungi in detail and understand it in very simple language, so let’s start.
What are fungi?
Fungi is a multi-cellular organism that obtains their nutrition from rotten materials. There are both types of sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction in fungi. Kingdom Fungi are divided into four groups, one of which sexual reproduction is not found, namely Deuteromycetes.
We are going to read about this Kingdom fungi in detail, so let’s start.
Characteristics of Kingdom Fungi –
- The study of fungi is called Mycology.
- Kingdom fungi were presented by R. H. Whittaker.
- Fungi are saprophytic, that is, they get their nutrition from rotten or dead substances. They are also called decomposers because they decompose rotten materials.
- They are cosmopolitan meaning they are found in all three places, the Hydrosphere, the Lithosphere, and the atmosphere. Or the living beings who are found in these three circles are called cosmopolitan.
- Their body is multicellular and eukaryotic cells are found in them. But there is an exception in this kingdom yeast is kept which is single-celled.
- Fungi are made up of many cells and each of these cells is called a hypha many hyphae together form a mycelium, which is called the body of the fungi. The word Mycology came from this Mycellium.
- Fungi filaments are of two types. septate hypha and Coenocytic hypha. When the nucleus of a fungal hyphae divides into two nuclei, a septum is formed between these two nuclei, due to the collapse of the septum, it becomes a bicellular structure, then such a bicellular structure is called septate hypha.
- And when the nucleus divides inside the fungal filament to form many nuclei and the seeds of these nuclei do not form any septum, then such a multinucleated structure is called a coenocytic hypha.
- The cell wall is found in them which is made of chitin. Chitin is the second most abundant organic substance on this earth and the first place is cellulose.
- Both fungi and animals store their food in the form of glycogen.
- When fungi and algae show symbiotic relationships with each other, then that structure is called lichen.
- When some special types of fungi show symbiosis by sticking to the root of some special type of higher plant, then the place where the fungus is attached is called mycorrhiza.
- Fungi reproduce both asexually and sexually.
- There are two types of asexual reproduction. First by budding and second by sporulation. There are two types of spores. Conidia and Zoospore.
- In these, a structure is formed for sexual reproduction which is called a fruiting body. There are many types of spores inside this fruiting body, which act like gametes, the later fusion of these gametes will take place, and after that zygote is formed, as a result of which somewhere a new organism will be formed, is, there will sexual reproduction.
Classification of kingdom fungi –
On the basis of sexual reproduction, Kingdom fungi are divided into four groups.
- These are called algal fungi.
- Most of the organisms of this group are found in water, and their structure is like algae. So they are called algal fungi.
- Their body is layer less, that is, it is multinucleated.
- In this, asexual reproduction takes place, in which spores are formed, now they can be mobile spores as well as immobile spores.
- In their sexual reproduction, gametes are formed, which are called nymphs. In these, both homozygous and heterozygous types are found.
- For example – Mucor is called tomato fungus because it infects tomatoes. Rhizopus is called bread fungus because it infects bread.
- These are called Sac fungi.
- In these, a fruiting body is formed during sexual reproduction called ascocarp. Ascus is found inside this ascocarp and ascus spores are found inside this ascus.
- These spores act like gametes, that is, they will reproduce sexually. The ascus looks like an empty space and this empty space is called a sac. So they are called Sac fungi.
- These are saprophytic and coprophilous, which means they are found in the feces of animals.
- In these, asexual reproduction takes place by conidia.
- Examples – Yeast, Penicillium, and Neurospora. Neurospora is the fungus on which most genetic studies are done.
- They are found in the soil and on top of broken tree branches.
- Their fungal net is septate and branched.
- Spores are formed in them for asexual reproduction. Now they can be mobile spores as well as immobile spores.
- In these, the gametes that will be formed for sexual reproduction are called basidium spores.
- Examples – Agaricus (Mushroom), Puccinia (Wheat Rust), Puffball, and Toadstool.
- There is no sexual reproduction in them.
- Due to a lack of sexual reproduction, they are also called Fungi Imperfectae. Imperfect means they do not do all the work like – do not do sexual reproduction, that is, they are not perfect.
- They reproduce only asexually and produce only immotile spores.
- Their body is striped.
- Example – Athlete’s foot, this infection is caused by Tinea fungus. An athlete’s foot is called because this infection is mostly due to sweating in Athletes.
You will find the answers to all the questions given below in the article.
How do fungi reproduce?
How do fungi obtain nutrients?
What are fungi cell walls made of?
What do fungi eat?
What are examples of fungi?
What are mycorrhizal fungi?
How are fungi classified?
What are the characteristics of fungi?
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