Hello, friends welcome again, friends to this article of ours, today we will talk about it. What is Taxonomy? If we go step by step about the classification, then we know about the origin of the word Taxonomy, after all how this word originated.
What is Taxonomy?
The word Taxonomy is derived from the Greek language. It is made up of two Greek words Taxis and Nomos. This means Taxis means = Arrangement, and Nomos means = Law.
Here you have learned about how the word Taxonomy originated, now we know what is the definition of classification method or taxonomy.
What is the Definition of Taxonomy?
See, the system and rule of classification of organisms are called Taxonomy or method of classification.
“The methodology and theory of classification of organisms are Taxonomy or Classification Method” This theory is E. Mayr (in 1961).
Now we have learned about the definition of taxonomy, now we will know about its meaning, that is, what is its meaning.
Friends, so far, what is classification, what is the definition of classification? And now we will know what is Systematics.
What is Systematics?
The word Systematics is derived from the Greek word ‘systema’. Which means ‘placing together‘ i.e. ‘to put together.
Thus systematics means classification according to their natural relationship with living things, called systematic.
Scientist GG Simpson of any organism diversity and all the relationships between them are Systematics.
What is a Taxonomic system?
View of organisms The system of classification and nomenclature classification system.
The taxonomic system was first introduced by the scientist Aristotle Sir. He classified animals according to their living, manner, function, habitat, and body parts or parts.
He has done many more things like – insects, fishes, birds, and whales have been tested and given information about them,
I hope you have understood well about the classification method, so let’s go Now let’s go ahead.
Who is the Father of Biological Classification?
See who is the father of biological classification, the scientist Aristotle was the first to start the classification system. And a lot was told about it.
That is why he is called the Father of Biological Classification because of his above article.
He classified animals’ gills, lungs, claws, teeth, and other structures on the basis of
The work of modern classification was first John Ray started by publishing his very interesting work in 1693 in “Synopsis Methodical Animalium Quadrupedum et Serpentine Generis“.
He divided two types of organisms, one was bloody organisms and other bloodless animals.
Now let us see the contribution of the scientist Carolus Linnaeus to the classification system.
Carolus Linnaeus –
Scientist C. Linnaeus was a great Swedish naturalist who did essential work for the advancement of taxonomy.
For this reason, he is the father of modern classification.
He published his famous book “Systema Naturae” in the year 1750. He first presented both the animal kingdom and the plant kingdom in the classification system.
The scientist Michael Adamson also knows what his contribution to the classification system is.
Michael Adamson was a French botanist. He told that classification should be done on the basis of many traits or characteristics and after that, he developed a new type of classification. called “Numerical Taxonomy”.
What did the scientist Lamarck contribute to the classification method?
Lamarck (1744-1829) –
in the first attempt, Linnean system published his “Histories Naturelle des Animus sans Vertebras” in seven volumes.
He showed animals in groups and plants as branches. this classification system phylogeny”.
Now scientists will know the theory of Cuvier next.
Scientist Cuvier said that extinct organism fossils should be included in the table of classification. They have divided the animals into four branches.
|1- Vertebrata||Include fish in mammals|
|2- Mollusca||Mollusca and Barnacles|
|3- Articulata||Annelids, Crustaceans ((hard-shelled aquatic animals)|
|4- Radiata||Echinoderms, Nematodes, and coelenterates|
Now we will study further what the scientist Charles Darwin contributed to the classification system.
Charles Darwin –
Scientist Charles Darwin published his famous article “Origin of species”. Darwin’s new evolutionary idea was quickly accepted among biologists. Their developmental ideas directly influenced classification.
He had also given an important read proof in favor of development. Because the activities of classification and their meaning were also given in Darwin’s theory of evolution. He also discovered and described many species.
When did the development of modern classification begin?
The development of modern classification began during the 1930s. The classification during this period as “biocommunity” was based on.
Scientist E. Mayr –
Scientist E. Mayr (1942) similar to species “groups of interbreeding natural-population” .his book “New systematics” has brought an epoch-making revolution in the history of classification in
Taxonomists have accepted it as a mass community species. And started working on it vigorously taxonomists. started this work from the field of experiment
. Later this classification method changed Biological Taxonomy.
Introduction to Taxa and Species –
- Taxonomy – (See the first heading to know this)
- Systematics – (See the second heading to know this)
What is Classification in Biology?
The meaning of the word classification is to cover partially the taxonomy. Yet it is being classified as a purely activity tool.
According to Simpson –
Scientist Simpson told that according to the order of zoology classification, animals are classified on the basis of their relationship within the groups.
The overlapping purpose of a certain amount of overlap between systematic terminology and classification methodology and classification is impossible.
What is the Definition of Taxa in Biology?
Taxa of singular called a Taxon. on the basis of the characteristics of the species, animals are classified into different groups. Classified is another way “taxa” called
“A group of any category is called a taxon . Which is clearly being appointed in a certain class in sufficient quantity according to the merit”.
There are many taxa in the animal classification system. whose names are phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. In this classification system, the taxonomic arrangement is made from phylum to species. In this method, the group of organisms in each taxon is based on the characteristics of the species.
Phylum Taxon is a long group. Many such phyla have been formed in the animal world. The members of a union are identified by some special figure which is given below.
|Coelenterate||Common body cavity and digestive cavity|
|Nematoda||Threadlike worm animal|
|Annelida||Metameric ally segmented Animal|
|Arthropoda||Having joined legs|
probably also appears to have different common characteristics from a species characteristic of members of a phylum. Since many species of animals have been included in a federation. It is further subdivided which is given below.
|Phylum – subphylum – class|
|Phylum – classes|
|Phylum – superclass – classes|
Class (Class) –
The next level after the phylum in classification is the class. There are only a few classes in a phylum. The members of each class are determined by certain species’ characteristics.
So for example phylum like the – 4 class has been included in the Protozoa phylum. Which is the following-
|Rhizopoda||with root-like pseudopodia|
Each class is divided into superorders or orders.
Class – subclass – super order – order
class – Order
Another level of classification in the classification system is ordered. They are marked or identified by the characteristic feature of some species. There can be many orders in a class.
For example – Category – Insect is subdivided into about 29 orders.
Each order is determined by the characteristics or properties of a species.
After this, the order has been subdivided into Family.
Order – Super Family – Families
Order – Families
Each family contains several genera. Each lineage is again subdivided into species. Species or species are very important taxon in this classification. A species refers to a natural entity. A species reflects a reality. That is, what it really is.
The species is the main unit in the classification system. Basically, evolution takes place only at the species level. Therefore “The Concept of species” has been made under very special care. Let’s know now. What is the concept of species?
Concept of species –
In the beginning, keeping the species in mind, the group of organisms has been demonstrated on the species’ characteristics or similarities. In this way, the modern worker has determined three main concepts related to species.
1- Typological species concept –
This concept started with the important thought of Aristotle. According to this concept, a species is identified by its morphologically important characteristic.
2- Nominalist species concept –
According to this species concept, this man-made idea of nature has given birth to man. But there are more of its species so it is considered a mental concept.
3- Biological species concept –
According to this concept – Species are groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups”.This concept has been mainly accepted by modern taxonomists.
Methods of taxonomy –
1- Numerical taxonomy –
This method includes the method of grouping a single taxon or several taxa separately. All equality is being built on the basis of identity. The aggregation of the desired size is called an Operational Taxonomic Unit.
This identity system involves the measurement of similarity or dissimilarity from taxon to taxon. It uses a scale of measurement from 0 to 1. The presence of 1 identifies the correct taxa indicating dissimilarity between this method, and a large amount of data related to groups is stored. made for precision testing are computers being used.
The character picture and identity of a cell determine its complete chromosomes. Which is related to Karyotyping. This is the first step in the process of using chromosomes in classification.
Within karyotypes, community hybridization of a species is often permanent. The intervention between the chromosome number and size of the species may indicate the end process such as Inversion and Translocation mediated potentiation.
3- Chemotaxonomy –
to get information about the small molecules produced by the action of enzymes Chemotaxonomy The help of
All these tools are used in Chemotaxonomy for the identification of protein molecules in electrophoretic techniques and amino acids in chemotaxonomy and for the identification of the generality of isoenzymes in tissue material. With the help of this taxonomy, the signal, color, pigment, and organism toxin present in the species are also sent.
4- Paleoauxology –
This method of fossil depends on the time period and identity of the availability of a good complete fossil is said to be a good opportunity for identification. It is a difficult process to identify their characteristics from beginning to end by taking their part in many living fossils. The association between fossils and other attached fossils with their geographic location and other factors has been studied.
Although even from a single fossil it is possible to determine one lineage or another at the highest level. But it is never possible to repair the species.
Friends, in this article, what is the classification? Step-by-step information has been taken about it. Friends, I hope that you will be satisfied with the information given in this article, if you like this information, then share it with your friends.
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