Differences between prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

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Differences between prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.

Featureprokaryotic cellEukaryotic cell
Size1 to 10-micron meter10- 100 Micron meter
Cell wallNoncellulose is composed of amino Sugars and muramic acid. Blue-green algae have some cellulose.Absent in animal cells and present in plant cells consisting mainly of cellulose.
CapsuleWhen present composed of mucopolysaccharide.Absent
CytoplasmNo streaming endocytosis or exocytosis.Cytoplasmic streaming endocytosis and exocytosis are seen. 
Golgi apparatus Absentand concerned with cell secretion.
LysosomeAbsentPlays a digestive Role.
RibosomeThe 70S ( 50S+30S; is Randomly scattered in the cytoplasm.The 80S was found attached To ER membrane and also free in the cytoplasm.
Endoplasmic reticulum  AbsentConcerned with synthesis and cellular transport.
Microtubules and  microfibrilsAbsentPresent in the cytoplasmic matrix.
MitochondriaAbsentConcerned with cell respiration and liberation Of energy.
Photosynthetic apparatusIn the form of membranes with chlorophyll-a in blue-green algae and bacteriochlorophyll in bacteria.Chloroplast with chlorophyll – a, and b  are present in plant cells only.
Nuclear membraneAbsent Present
NucleoplasmNot differentiated from the cytoplasm.Separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear membrane. 
NucleolusAbsent  Present
VacuoleAbsentPresent only in plant cells.
ChromosomeThe single circular structure is formed of DNA only; No histone nucleus is absent.More than one composed of chromatin (DNA and a basic protein called histones) is enclosed in the nuclear membrane to form the nucleus.
FlagellaPresent in some species but does not have a 9 + 2 fibrillar structure.Present in some messages has a 9 + 2 fibrillar structure.
Hereditary materialDNA (circular)DNA (very long linear)
Cell divisionDivide by simple fission spindle is not formed, no mitosis and meiosis.Cells divide by mitosis or by miosis.
Respiratory enzymesAre located on the plasma membrane and its pushing. Are enclosed in mitochondria.
transcription and translationOccur in the cytoplasm.Transcription occurs in the nucleus and translation in the cytoplasm.
ExamplesBacteria, blue-green, algae, and mycoplasma.Protozoa, algae, metaphyta, and metazoa. 
Differences between prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

Differences between plant and animal cells.

Both plant and animal cells are eukaryotic. These have many features in common but differ in the following characteristics.

prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells
prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells
Plant cellAnimal cell
The cell wall formed of cellulose is present outside the plasma membrane.A cell wall is absent in all animal cells.
 A vacuole lies in the center so the cytoplasm forms a thin layer inside the plasma membrane.Vacuoles are Absent in all typical animal cells.
Chloroplast is present in all green plant cells.Chloroplast or absent.
Plant cells lack centrioles and centrosomes.Animal cells possess centrioles and centrosomes.
Golgi complex is found scattered and is called dictyosome.Gali complexes district and well-developed it lies near the nucleus.
Cytokinesis takes place through cell plate formation.Cytokinesis occurs by constriction in the cell cytoplasm.
Differences between prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells

What is a Bacterial cell?

Bacterial cells are typical and most common prokaryotic cells.

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Structure of bacterial cell

  1. Size and shape –

 The bacteria are non-cellular, your microscopic prokaryotic cells. The average 1.25 microns in diameter. The smallest Bacteria are diester pneumosintes about 0.15 T to 0.3 Micron in length and the largest bacterium is spirillum all volutans 13 to 15 Micron in length.

Thoracal inform (cocci) or rod Shaped (bacilli) Comma shaped spirillum or coiled and screw-like (spirochaetes).

 2. Structure –

Bacteria cell consists of the following structures:

 (1) Capsule –

 The number of bacteria in the slimy capsule is present around the bacteria cell outside the cell wall. It is composed of polysaccharides and serves as an additional protective covering.

(2) Cell wall –

All bacterial cells are covered by a strong, rigid cell wall. It is about 49 to 140 microns in thickness and lies just outside the plasma membrane. It is formed of carbohydrate polypeptide peptidoglycan Thai Koi acid polyphosphate polymer some lipids’ phosphorus inorganic salts and a derivative called muramic acid. It also contains amino acids, the diaminopimelic acid.

(3) Plasma membrane –

The bacterial plasma membrane is similar to the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. But it contained oxidative or respiratory chain enzymes. The bacterial plasma membrane is modified to form varied structures:

 Mesosomes – In Tubercle bacillus and bacillus subtilis, the plasma membrane is invaginated into whorls of convoluted membranes called mesosomes or chondroid.

These contain enzymes of the electron transport system. Mesosomes help in respiration secretion and synthesis of material for the cell walls; receive DNA during conjugation and are sites of DNA-replication enzymes. These also help distribute chromosomes (DNA) to daughter bacterial cells.

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 Desmosomes: In Thiovulvum majus The plasma membrane sinks Deep into the cytoplasm forming multi-layered structures, called desmosomes.

(4) Cytoplasm –

The bacterial cytoplasm contains granules of fats, glycogen, proteins, volutin granules, etc. certain photosynthetic bacteria have chromoplasts helping bacteriochlorophyll or some other photosynthetic pigments ( carotenoids).

The pigment and the enzymes are found associated with the internal membrane which is arranged either as lamellae or tubeless or vesicles.  These create the so-called Chromatophores.

The cytoplasm contains 70S ribosomes. These are also called bacterial ribosomes. These occur freely in the cytoplasm or form polyribosomes. Each bacterial ribosome consists of two subunits 30s and 50s.

 (5) Nuclear material or nucleoid or genophore:

It consists of a helical DNA molecule that forms a circular chromosome stop it leads between the Santa Clause and is not enclosed in a nuclear Membrane. The clear area of the Cytoplasm along with the bacterial chromosomes is called nucleoid or genophore.

It is folded into several super-coiled loops.

(6) Plasmids –

E. coli and Many bacteria have many small double-stranded circular DNA molecules other than the bacterial chromosome. These are called Plasmids.  These have their Individuality and replicate independently. Sometimes, plasmid DNA joins bacterial chromosomes and becomes their integral part. Such a structure is called episome.

E.coli has three types of Plasmids.

(a) F factors – These are also called sex factors.  The bacterial cell having an F factor is called F+  cells are Donor cells. Without F factor are called F- cells or recipient cells. F factor initiates Conjugation between F+ and F cells.

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(b) R factors – These contain genes that provide resistance to bacterial cells against antibiotics.

(c) Col factors – The presence of these factors makes the bacteria secrete colicins. These are antibiotics. The cells without col factor are destroyed by colicins.

(7) Flagella – 

Flagella are fine thread-like cytoplasmic structures. These come out of the cell wall and cell coat. These help bacterial cells in swimming. The bacterial flagellum is much simpler than the eukaryotic flagellum. It is without membranous covering and is formed of a single fibril about 120–150 angstroms thick. It is formed of rounded subunits of flagellin. These units are arranged in a spiral fashion.

Based on the number and arrangement of flagella, bacteria are classified into the following types:

  1. Atrichous – without flagella. Examples – Pasteurella.
  2. Monotrichous – With one flagellum only. Examples – Thiobacillus and Pseudomonas
  3. Lophotrichous – with many flagella, but all on one end of the bacterial cell. Examples: Spirillum volutans
  4. Amphitrichous – Flagella are many and present at both ends of bacterial cells. Examples – Nitrosomonas
  5. Peritrichous – Flagella are present all over the body.

(8) Flagella –

Some bacteria possess whip-like flagella. A bacterial flagellum is formed of a single fibril about 100-200 Angstroms thick. It arises from a basal granule and is composed of a protein flagellum. 

(9) Pili or fimbriae –

Some bacteria possess fine hair-like outgrowths from their surface. These are composed of helically arranged subunits of protein – pilin and are called pili. These help in the attachment.

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