What is Phylum Protozoa | Characters, Classification

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General Characters of Phylum Protozoa

  • Microscopic animals have been kept in the phylum Protozoa and they are very simple organisms.
  • They are single-celled animals and have one or more nuclei.
  • Their body may be naked or protected by a skeleton in the form of a pellicle or test or cyst.
  • Their body is made up of one cell, which performs all the necessary functions, there is no physical division during childbirth.
  • These organisms are independent organisms, symbiotic or parasitic, independent organisms are aquatic and these organisms are found in fresh water and salty or brackish water. They can be solitary or colonial. These parasites are part of the body of plants and animals. outside or inside.
  • Their nutrition can be Holozoic (e.g. animals), Holophytic (e.g. plants), Saprozoic (Subsisting on dead organic matter), Saprophytic (feeding on liquid food), or Parasitic.
  • Their digestion is intracellular and the food vacuole is completed inwards.
  • They may or may not have limbs for walking or moving organs Pseudopodia or flagella or cilia.
  • Their respiration and excretion take place through their normal body surface.
  • In these, asexual reproduction occurs by diffusion, multiple fission, and budding.
  • In these, sexual reproduction occurs by the formation of gametes or by the combination of adults.
  • In some micro-organisms, the life cycle is complex and they show reversion to their descendants.
  • Contains Encystment to help cope with adversity and spread running.
  • Information has been obtained about more than 50 thousand species.

So far we have known about the general characteristics of Phylum Protozoa, now we will know about its classification, so let us now know about the classification.

What is a Paramecium Phylum Protozoa
What is a Paramecium image credit – Inclusivescience.in

Classification of phylum protozoa

The phylum Protozoa is divided into four subphyla.

  1. Subphylum – Sarcomastigophora
  2. Subphylum – Sporozoa
  3. Subphylum – Cnidospora
  4. Subphylum – Ciliophora

First of all, we know about the suborder Sarcomastigophora

Subphylum I – SARCOMASTIGOPHORA

  • In this suborder of Phylum protozoa, microscopic animals have organs for walking or organs for movement, Pseudopodia or flagella, or both.
  • They contain one or more nuclei of the same type.
  • In these animals, asexual reproduction takes place by double fission and multiple fission.

Superclass (A) Mastigophora (flagellata)

  • We will know about what type of animals have been kept in this superclass of Phylum protozoa.
  • These animals are simple and primitive and have a strong membrane or membrane
    They have flagella for walking and this is how these animals move.
    In this, the organisms are autotrophic or heterotrophic, or both.

Superclass (A) Mastigophora (flagellata)

  • We will know about what type of animals have been kept in this superclass of Phylum protozoa.
  • These animals are simple and primitive and have a strong membrane or membrane.
  • They have flagella for walking and this is how these animals move.
  • In this, the organisms are autotrophic or heterotrophic, or both.

Class 1. Phytomastigophorea (Phytoflagellata)

  • Chlorophyll-bearing chromatophores are present.
  • The nutrition of these organisms is holophytic or phototrophic.
  • The food in these is in the form of starch or paramylon.
  • They have one or two or more flagella.

ORDER 1 – Chrysomonadida

In this order or order of Phylum protozoa, we will study which type of organisms have been placed.

  • Amoeba does not have an alimentary canal but does have the stigma
  • Mainly one flagellum but sometimes two or three.
  • Chromatophores are one or two and are yellow, brown, or yellowish-green.
  • They do not contain starch but may contain leucosin and fat.
  • They contain siliceous cysts or fatty vesicles
  • These animals are found in seawater or fresh water.

Examples – chrysamoeba, chromulina, etc.

Order 2. Cryptomonadida

In this order of the phylum protozoa, we also know about what type of organisms have been placed.

  • The anterior gullet reaches the central part of the body.
  • Flagella are two and unequal.
  • They have two chromatophores and are yellow, brown, or colorless.
  • Their reserve food or reserve food is in the form of starch.
  • Stigma is present in these.
  • These organisms live in seawater or fresh water.

Example – Chilomonas, Cryptomonas etc.

ORDER 3. Euglenoida

What types of animals have been placed in this order or group of Phylum protozoa, you will know about them.

  • The back end with an esophagus or cytopharynx goes inside the main collection.
  • Flagella are 1 or 2, and together with mastigonemes.
  • They have many chromatophores and they are green.
  • Foods that contain paramylon or oil.
  • Stigma is present in these.
  • These creatures mostly live in freshwater.

Example – Euglena, Peranema, Rhabdomanas.

ORDER 4. Volvocida (=Phytomonadida)

In this fourth order of the phylum protozoa, we also know about what types of animals have been placed.

  • In this, the animals are covered with small, hard cellulose and do not have an esophagus.
  • Flagella are mainly two and sometimes more.
  • Reserved foods containing starch or oil.
  • Stigma is present in these.
  • They mostly live in fresh water and some live as colonies.

Examples Chlamydomonas, Volvox.

ORDER 5. Chloromonadida

In this fifth order of the Phylum protozoa, which type of animals have been kept, you will know about them.

  • The dorsal abdomen is flattened in their body and is accompanied by a delicate thin membrane (Pellicle).
  • The esophagus is present in
  • They have two flagella, sometimes one or more.
  • Chromatophores are green and many of these, are colorless too.
  • Reserved foods contain oil
  • they do not have the stigma
  • They mostly live in freshwater.

Example – Coelomonas

ORDER 6. Dinoflagellida

In this sixth order of the phylum protozoa, we also study what types of organisms have been placed.

  • They are small and planktonic, naked and amoeboid, or with a thick pellicle or theca.
  • 2 flagella are found in these
  • These organisms have many chromatophores and are yellow to brown.
  • reserve food containing starch or oil or both
  • They contain stigma and two contractile vacuoles.
  • Most live in seawater and some are parasitic

Examples – Noctiluca, Ceratium, and Gymnodinium.

Class 2. Zoomastigophorea (=Zooflagellata)

We know about what types of animals have been kept in this class or the class of Phylum Protozoa.

  • These animals possess chlorophyll but do not have chromatophores.
  • Their nutrition is holozoic and saprozoic.
  • They are parasitic, symbiotic, or independent organisms.
  • The reserve food in these is in the form of glycogen.
  • These animals have more than one flagella.

Examples Mastigamoeba, Dimorpha.

ORDER 2. Kinetoplastida

  • In this group, animals are more or less like a small amoebas.
  • One or two flagella are found in these.
  • In which nutrition is holozoic or saprozoic.
  • They are solitary or colonial animals
  • These animals live in the blood as parasites

Examples – Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Bodo.

ORDER 3. Choanoflagellida

  • Free-living animals live in this order.
  • It is colonial.
  • A flagellum has a collar around the base.
  • Their nutrition is of the holozoic type.

Example Proterospongia.

ORDER 4. Diplomonadida

  • These animals are small with a delicate pellicle and a cytostome
  • They have 3 to 8 flagella, which form the border of a wavy membrane.
  • They have one nucleus, sometimes more nuclei.
  • They are mainly parasites living in the intestine.

Example – Giardia, Hexamita.

ORDER 5. Hypermastigida

Organisms with more flagella have been placed in this order with higher characteristics.
Their kinetosomes or parabasal bodies are in a circular or longitudinal or curved row.
These are organisms of the single nucleus or multinucleated
These animals do not have a mouth, they feed through pseudopodia.
These are parasites found in the intestines of cockroaches and termites.

Example Triychonympha, Lophomonas.

ORDER 6. Trichomanadida

  • 4 to 6 flagella are found in these animals.
  • One of them also has a flagellum to walk behind.
  • These parasites are found in the genital tract.

Example Trichomonas

Superclass (B). Opalinata

  • The body of organisms in this superclass is covered with flagella or cilia.
  • nuclei are more than two and monomorphic
  • Their nutrition is of saprozoic type.
  • In these, reproduction occurs through diffusion or gametes.
  • These parasites are found in frogs and toads.

ExampleOpalina

Superclass (C) Sarcodina (=Rhizopoda)

  • Their body is without a pellicle.
  • It is carried by Pseudopodia.
  • Their nutrition is holozoic or saprozoic.
  • In these, asexual reproduction occurs by diffusion.
  • They are solitary and free-living, some parasitic or colonial.

Class 1. Actinopodea

Pseudopodia is axopodia in the form of axial filaments emerging from the spherical body.

Subclass (1) Heliozoa

  • These are spherical protozoans.
  • Pseudopodia (axopodia) are radiating.
  • Their body is naked and the outer part is differentiated into vacuolated ectoplasm and the inner part into solid endoplasm.
  • They have the holozoic type of nutrition
  • Most animals live in freshwater

ExampleActinophrys, Clathrulina Actinosphaerium.

Subclass (2) Radiolaria

  • Their perforated central capsule separates the ectoplasm from the endoplasm.
  • They do not have contractile vacuoles.
  • They have pseudopodia, axopodia or filopodia.
  • Their skeleton is sharp like silica.
  • it is marine.

Example Collozoum.

Subclass (3) Proteomyxidia

  • In these pseudopodia occurs as filopodia.
  • They live in seawater or freshwater.
  • In these, reproduction takes place by double fission or multiple fission.

Example Pseudospora

Subclass (4) Acantharia

  • The central capsule is non-chitinous and without pores
  • Their skeleton is made of strontium sulfate.
  • Pseudopodia are present in these as axopodia.

ExampleAcanthrometra

 Class 2. Rhizopodea

  • These include pseudopodia, lobopodia, filopodia. or reticlopodia and it is without axillary filaments.

Subclass (1) Lobosia

In these Pseudopodia is in the form of Labopodia.

ORDER 1. Amoebia

  • Their body is like that of an amoeba and they are without a skeleton.
  • In these pseudopodia (lobopodia) are small as well as obtuse ends.
  • ectoplasm and endoplasm are different.
  • Most live in fresh water and some are parasitic.

Example Amoeba, Entamoeba  

ORDER 2. Arcellinida (=Testacida)

  • Their body is enclosed in an orbital shell
  • This shell is accompanied by a single hole through which the lobopodia exit.
  • They are free-living organisms and are found in freshwater.

Examples – Arcella, Difflugia, Euglypha.

Subclass (2) Filosia

  • This subclass has pseudopodia, and filopodia, it is slender and elongated and has branches.
  • Their body is naked or with a shell with a hole in them.
  • Ectoplasm is not separated in it.
  • They live in seawater or fresh water.

Examples Allogromia, Penardia.

Subclass (3) Granuloreticulosia

  • It contains pseudopodia and reticulopodia.

ORDER Foraminiferida

  • The animals are large in size with a single or multi-chambered shell.
  • The shell is accompanied by one or more holes through which the reticulopodia emerge.
  • They are mainly marine.

Example Globigerina, Elphidium (=Polystomella)

Subclass (4) Mycetozoia

  • Their body is elongated, amoeboid, meaning like amoeba and they are multinucleated.
  • Have many pseudopodia and are obtuse.
  • sporangia form with spores.

ExampleSlime molds.

Class 3. Piroplasmea

  • They are small parasites and are found in the red blood cells (RBCs) of vertebrates.
  • These do not occur in the form of spores.

Example Babesia

  • Now we will know entirely about the second suborder Sporozoa of the Phylum Protozoa.

Subphylum II. SPOROZOA

  • In this sub-federation, only the endoparasite is kept
  • Their body is thick and along with it, their pellicle is also thick. Adults do not have organs to walk or move.
  • Nutrition in these is saprozoic
  • In these, asexual reproduction occurs by multiple fission and sexual reproduction occurs by gamete fusion followed by spore formation.
  • Their life cycle includes both sexual and asexual stages.

Class 1. Telosporea

  • spores are without polar shells or filaments
  • In this, the spores are rigid and the microgametes are flagellated.
  • It has only one nucleus with trophozoites.

Subclass (1) Gregarinia

  • In this, trophozoites are elongated and they are found in the body cavity and alimentary canal of invertebrates.
  • gametes show syzygy.
  • The zygote is immovable i.e. it cannot move.
  • Sporozoites are found in the sporocyst.
  • Male and female gametes are monogamous.
  • It is a parasite found in invertebrates.

Examples – Monocystis, Gregarinia, Nematocystis.

Subclass (2) Coccidia

  • Trophozoites are small and intracellular
  • gametes are dimorphic
  • Spores are present in sporocysts (oocysts)
  • These parasites are found in the intestine or alimentary canal of vertebrates.

ExampleEimeria, Isospora Plasmodium.

Class 2. Toxoplasmea

  • Organisms of this class do not form spores.
  • Only asexual reproduction takes place.

Example Toxoplasmeav

Class 3. Haplosporea

  • contains spores along with spores.
  • These parasites are found in fish and invertebrates.
  • They may have pseudopodia but no flagella.
  • Reproduction takes place only by schizogony (asexual).

Examples – Ichthyosporidium, Haplosporidium.

Now we will study completely step by step the third suborder of Phylum Protozoa.

Subphylum III. CNIDOSPORA

  • Trophozoites have many nuclei.
  • In these, the formation of spores takes place throughout life.
  • The spore polar shell also contains polar fibers.

Class 1. Myxosporidea

  • These spores are large and together with a bivalve membrane.
  • Polar capsules are 1,2, or 4, Each is accompanied by a filament.
  • Trophozoites are amoeboid.

Example Myxidium

ORDER 2. Actinomyxida

  • In this also the spores are large and there is a triangular membrane with it.
  • They have 3 polar capsules and each is accompanied by a filament.

Example Triactinomyxon, Sphaeractinomyxon.

class 2. Microsporidia

  • In this, the spores are small along with a valve membrane.
  • They may or may not have polar capsules.

Example Nosema

Subphylum IV. CILIOPHORA

  • The body of organisms of this subclass is intricately organized.
  • Cilia are present for food and in some stages of the life cycle, it is present as a part of the movement.
  • There are two types of nuclei present in it, micronucleus and macronucleus.
  • In these, asexual reproduction occurs by double fission or budding.
  • And sexual reproduction occurs by chance.

Class 1. Ciliata (Infusoria)

  • Along with these protozoa, they have a definite shape and size.
  • Their body is surrounded by a hard pellicle from the outside.
  • In these, the organ is cilia to move.
  • In these, the mouth (cytostome) and pharynx are definitely present, in which there is always an anal opening (cytopyge).
  • One or more contractile vacuoles are found in these organisms.
  • They have two types of nuclei, large macronucleus, and small micronucleus.

Subclass (1) Holotrichia

  • Body cilia are in one form.
  • They do not have mouth cilia.

ORDER 1. Gymnostomatida

  • Their body is big.
  • There are no buccal cilia in them.
  • Cytostome is open from the outside.

Examples Coleps, Didinium, Nassula.

ORDER 2. Trichostomatida

  • Cytostome is located at the bottom of the vestibule.
  • The vestibule has spiral rows of cilia and no cilia in the oral region.

Example Colpoda, Balantidium.

ORDER 3. Chonotrichida

  • The body of the creatures of this Gana is in the shape of a pitcher.
  • They do not have cilia in their body.
  • The last free end of the body with vestibular cilia is funnel-like.
  • Crustaceans have external commensals.

Example – Lobochona, Spirochona.

ORDER 4. Apostomatida

  • The body of organisms of this order is spirally arranged with cilia.
  • Cytostome is located in the middle abdomen.
  • The life cycle of a parasite or commensal is complex. Their life is completed in two hosts or nurtures.

ExampleHyalophysa, Polyspira.

ORDER 5. Astomatida

  • Cytostome is not found in the organisms of this group.
  • Their body is ciliation and homogeneous.
  • These parasitic or commensal earthworms are found in the alimentary canal and coelom.

Example Anoplohyra, Hoplitophyra.

ORDER 6. Hymenostomatida

  • Organisms of this group have similar cilia on their body along with being small.
  • The membrane is the synovial region of cells and the oral cavity with a wavy membrane.

Examples – Copidium, paramecium, Tetrahymena.

ORDER 6. Hymenostomatida

  • Organisms of this group have similar cilia on their body along with being small.
  • The membrane is the synovial region of cells and the oral cavity with a wavy membrane.

Examples – Copidium, paramecium, Tetrahymena.

Subclass (2) Peritrichia

  • In this subclass, the body of the adult organism is without cilia.
  • The end of the head is with the facial cilia.
  • These organisms are without sessile organisms.

ORDER 1. Peritrichida

  • This group has the characteristics of the subclass Peritrichia.

Examples Vorticella, Carchesium.

Subclass (3) Suctoria

  • The body of the organisms of this subclass is both stalked and non-stemmed.
  • Cilia are found in young and tentacles are found in adults.

ORDER 1. Suctorida

  • The characteristics of the subclass Suctorida are found in this order.

Example – Ephelota, Podophrya.

Subclass (4) Spirotricha

  • Organisms of this subclass have fewer cilia in their body.
  • In these organisms the cilia of the mouth are well-marked.

ORDER 1. Heterotrichida

  • Their body is enclosed in a lorica.
  • Their body mainly does not have cilia.
  • Their body is naked and their body cilia are similar.

Examples – Bursaria, Stentor, and Blepharisma.

ORDER 2. Hypotrichida

  • Their body is flattened towards the dorsal abdomen.
  • On the abdominal side body cilia form the cirri.

ExampleEuplotes, Kerona.

ORDER 3. Oligotrichida

  • In this body, cilia are reduced or absent.
  • The mouth is membranous only at the front end.

Examples – Strombidium, Halteria.

Conclusion

Friends, we have learned about the Phylum Protozoa, and its subphylum, superclass, class, order, and characteristics.

So, friend, I hope that you have liked the given information about phylum protozoa. If you liked this article then share it with your friends.

Thank you so much

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